GBI Research, has released its latest pharma report, "Acute Myeloid Leukemia Therapeutics Market to 2020 - Novel Therapies to Offer Clinical Benefit in Small Patient Cohorts"
Treatment and prognosis in AML is strongly influenced by a patient's age, and their cytogenetic profile. In the majority of cases these two prognostic influences are linked, with a higher frequency of unfavorable cytogenetic abnormalities observed in the elderly. Survival in this cohort of elderly patients is very poor, with a five year overall survival of 3-8% (Luger, 2010). Despite a relatively advanced understanding of genetic abnormalities associated with AML, the introduction of targeted therapies is lagging in this indication in comparison to other cancers such as breast and lung cancer, with no approved targeted therapies. Such slow development may be a reflection of AMLs status as an orphan indication.
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Intensive treatment in eligible patients (younger patients, and approximately 50% of diagnosed elderly patients) is typically the combination of the two chemotherapeutic agents cytarabine and daunorubicin, both of which were approved in the 1960s. In patients ineligible for intensive first-line chemotherapy, options are very poor, with the more recently approved Vidaza and Dacogen as the treatment options, which both offer unsatisfactory survival. Across all newly diagnosed patients that obtain complete remission, a stem cell transplant offers the highest chance of long-term survival. However, this procedure is risky, with a higher rate of treatment related mortality in the absence of better techniques to reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease.
The majority of patients experience disease relapse, which is almost always fatal. Treatment options in these patients typically involve the off-label use of chemotherapeutic agents, whether in combination or as monotherapies.
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